Missionaries are perfect nuisances and leave every place worse than they found it.This section will be restricted to one case in each continent, though many other similar cases of concerted efforts at genocide by Churches and missionaries can be found. Lecture Series: The Christian Roots of Genocide in Canada
-- Charles Dickens
Christianity and the Roots of Genocide: A Six Part Lecture Series
Presented by Kevin D. Annett, M.A., M.Div.
What is Genocide and how did it originate as an ideology and practice of Empire? Kevin Annett will demonstrate that Genocide is a system unique to European Christianity and has been central to the spread of corporate capitalism and war. Genocide is a religious ideology based upon the belief in "Christian Superior Dominion" over all peoples and the planet. To resist it, we must first understand it.
Canada Apologizes To Indigenous
The government of Canada issued an official apology to its 810,000 indigenous peoples on January 6 in a statement read on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
It specifically apologized for more than 80 of the church-run, government-funded schools operated for nearly a century, beginning in the 1880's. Investigations have revealed numerous incidents of rapes, beatings, suicides, suspicious deaths and humiliating punishments.
"To those individuals who experienced the tragedy of sexual and physical abuse . . . and who have carried this burden believing that in some way they must be responsible, we wish to emphasize that what you experienced was not your fault and should never have happened," said Indian Affairs minister Jane Stewart.
She pledged $245 million for counseling and treatment programs for victims of abuse at religious schools.
Hidden From History - A web site about the crimes against humanity committed in Christian Residential Schools in Canada since the 1880s. Canada and its Churches are accused of genocide (of the Aboriginal People in Canada). The Canadian Churches involved include Roman Catholic, Anglican, Presbyterian and the United Church of Canada.
See Guatemalans accuse Canada and its Churches of Genocide of Canadian indigenous people.
The high rates of alcoholism, violence, and suicide in Indian communities today can, in large part, be traced to the brutality of Indian boarding schools. Although the boarding schools have been a positive experience for some, they have also introduced violent, self-destructive behaviors into Native society.From: Colonialism and gender violence in the lives of American Indian women
Recently, the International Human Rights Association of American Minorities has issued a report which documents the involvement of mainline churches and the federal government in the murder of over 50,000 Native children through the Canadian residential school system. The list of offenses committed by church officials include murder by beating, poisoning, hanging, starvation, strangulation, and medical experimentation. Torture was used to punish children for speaking Aboriginal languages. Children were involuntarily sterilized.In addition, the report found that church clergy, police, and business and government officials [also Church-going members] were involved in maintaining pedophile rings using children from residential schools. The grounds of several schools are also charged with containing unmarked graveyards of children who were murdered, particular children killed after being born as a result of rapes of Native girls by priests and other church officials in the school. The United Church of Canada is currently threatened with bankruptcy in light of the class action suits it currently faces for its role in residential school abuse. While some churches in Canada have taken some minimal steps towards addressing its involvement in this genocidal policy, churches in the U.S. have not. And it is largely through boarding schools that Native communities have internalized the process of genocide so that we destroy ourselves.
- Chronology of Events: Genocide in Canada
- Canadian Churches practised paedophilia, sterilisation, forced abortions, committed murders of indigenous Canadians. They also experimented on children.
- Canadian Native Survivor's Testimonies of Crimes against humanity
- Book: Hidden from History by Kevin Annett
Christian Churches and Genocide in Rwanda - a paper by T. Longman for the Conference on Genocide, Religion, and Modernity:
Although religious identities did not separate perpetrators from victims in Rwanda, my research indicates that religion was nevertheless an essential element in the Rwandan genocide. Contrary to the claims of some church authorities,(6) the involvement of the churches went beyond a simple failure to act in the face of atrocities or the individual transgressions of church members. As I will attempt to demonstrate in this paper, the culpability of the churches lies not only in their historic role in teaching obedience to state authority and in constructing ethnic identities but also in their modern role as centers of social, political, and economic power, allied with the state, actively practicing ethnic discrimination, and working to preserve the status quo.Christian conversions of entire groups of people have always employed the method of converting chiefs and religious orders first and then let it trickle down to the masses. This is the preferred top-down approach. If this fails, as it did for instance with the unwilling Druids, the bottom-up method is used with a vengeance: get the people to convert and make them overthrow (and kill) the inconvertible chiefs and shamans.
Christianity and the Colonial Project
Christianity and Respect for Authority
The first mission stations in Rwanda were established in 1900 by the Society of Our Lady of Africa, commonly known as the White Fathers. Monseigneur Lavigerie, the founder of the order, promoted the idea that to implant Christianity successfully in a society, missionaries should focus their efforts at conversion first and foremost on political authorities. If chiefs and kings could be convinced to adopt Christianity, Lavigerie argued, their subjects would naturally follow.(7) The principle that evangelization should focus on chiefs profoundly affected the nature of the Catholic missionary project in Rwanda and has had far reaching consequences both for the Catholic Church in Rwanda and for Rwandan society generally.
Also from Christian Churches and Genocide in Rwanda:
Christianity and the Construction of Ethnicity
In the introductory essay to his edited volume on the construction of ethnicity in Southern Africa, Leroy Vail argues that European Christian missionaries played a crucial role in the development of ethnic ideologies in Africa. According to Vail,In addition to creating written languages, missionaries were instrumental in creating cultural identities through their specification of "custom" and "tradition" and by writing "tribal" histories . . . . Once these elements of culture were in place and available to be used as the cultural base of a distinct new, ascriptive ethnic identity, it could replace older organizing principles that depended upon voluntary clientage and loyalty and which, as such, showed great plasticity. Thus firm, non-porous and relatively inelastic ethnic boundaries, many of which were highly arbitrary, came to be constructed and were then strengthened by the growth of stereotypes of "the other" . . . .(15)Vail argues that missionaries "incorporated into the curricula of their mission schools the lesson that the pupils had clear ethnic identities," and claims that they "educated local Africans who then themselves served as the most important force in shaping the new ethnic ideologies."(16) Combined with the policies of colonial administrators and the popular acceptance of ethnic ideas as a means of coping with the disruptions of modernity, the actions of missionaries helped to create the deep social divisions that are at the root of ethnic conflict in many African countries.
The role of missionaries in the construction of ethnicity in Rwanda offers an excellent example of the process that Vail describes. In Rwanda, missionaries played a primary role in creating ethnic myths and interpreting Rwandan social organization -- not only for colonial administrators, but ultimately for the Rwandan population itself. The concepts of ethnicity developed by the missionaries served as a basis for the German and Belgian colonial policies of indirect rule which helped to transform relatively flexible pre-colonial social categories into clearly defined ethnic groups. Following independence, leaders who were trained in church schools relied extensively on ethnic ideologies to gain support, thus helping to intensify and solidify ethnic divisions.
The exact meaning of the categories of Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa in pre-colonial Rwanda, Burundi, and Zaire is a subject of considerable debate among scholars. Nearly all scholars, however, agree that the three were not clearly distinct and rigidly separated ethnic groups. The three groups shared a common language and common religious practices, and they lived in the same communities throughout the region. The groups were distinguished primarily by their position within the political and economic system, which assigned members of each group specific economic activities and social roles. The Tutsi, who are generally thought to have constituted about 14% of the population, dominated most political offices and made their living predominantly from raising cattle, while the Hutu, who made up around 85% of the population, worked primarily as farmers. The Twa lived as hunters and gatherers and fulfilled certain social functions such as making pottery. Intermarriage between Hutu and Tutsi was relatively common, and those Hutu who acquired cattle, the traditional sign of wealth and source of power in the ubuhake patron-client system, could eventually be considered Tutsi, a process known as icyihuture. While the Tutsi clearly gained the greatest benefits from this system, each group had certain economic opportunities reserved for it, and a complex political system of overlapping chieftaincies helped to prevent the concentration of power.(17)
When colonial administrators and Catholic missionaries arrived in Rwanda, they were enchanted by the Tutsi rulers they encountered. To the missionaries, the Tutsi seemed tall and elegant, with refined features and light skin, in some ways closer in appearance to Europeans than to their short, stocky, dark Hutu compatriots. As elsewhere in Africa, in order to convert the population in Rwanda, the missionaries considered it important to understand the indigenous culture and social structures, and the interpretations that came from their study of the culture greatly influenced both the colonial administration and, subsequently, Rwandan self-perceptions. Influenced by contemporary European notions of race which held that the world could be divided into clearly defined and hierarchically ranked racial and national groups, the missionaries, ignoring important divisions within each of the groups, viewed Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa as three distinct peoples representing three separate waves of immigration. They viewed the Twa as the autochthonous population, the original inhabitants of the region, who many centuries earlier were subdued by Bantu migrants from the west who became the Hutu. According to the missionary account, the Tutsi arrived from the northeast sometime later, around 1600, and because of their clear superiority, conquered the Hutu, whom they had ruled ever since. Doubting that Africans could have designed so complex and efficient a political system, the missionaries hypothesized that the Tutsi were not really African but a Hamitic or Semitic group from the Middle East, perhaps a lost tribe of Israel.(18)
The Tutsi, not surprisingly, failed to challenge the missionaries' assertions of their superiority and instead participated in the development of a mythico-history that portrayed them as natural rulers, with superior intelligence and morals. When the Catholic Church began to recruit native Rwandan clergy early in the century (the first native-born priest was ordained in 1917), they selected exclusively Tutsi, and these priests, nuns, and brothers played an important role in interpreting Rwandan history and culture. A group of Tutsi intellectuals emerged within the church -- most importantly historian Alexis Kagame and Bishop Aloys Bigirumwami -- whose anthropological and historical texts, based largely on oral histories, reinforced many of the ideas of strict ethnic separation and Tutsi political dominance. As Alison DesForges writes, "In a great and unsung collaborative enterprise over a period of decades, Europeans and Rwandan intellectuals created a history of Rwanda that fit European assumptions and accorded with Tutsi interests."(19) This history became widely accepted by Rwandans of all ethnicities, and following the transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu after the 1959 revolution, Hutu leaders used the historical account of centuries of ethnically based exploitation to inspire support among the Hutu masses.
The policy of indirect rule implemented by both the Germans and Belgians (after they took control of the colony during World War I) left the Rwandan monarchy in place, using the existing political structures to administer colonial policies. The system lost much of its complexity, as power became increasingly centralized. Since indirect rule required identifying indigenous authorities, the Belgian administration registered all of the population in the 1930s and issued identity cards that designated each person's ethnicity. This and other policies effectively eliminated the flexibility in Rwanda's ethnic structure, making it "almost impossible for Hutu to become Tutsi just at a time when being Tutsi brought all the advantages."(20) Educational, employment, and economic opportunities were reserved for Tutsi, producing a huge gap between the ethnic groups which was at the root of the Hutu anger and resentment that inspired the 1959 insurrection.The shift in missionary support from Tutsi to Hutu in the 1950s did not substantially alter either the nature of the Rwandan ethnic system or the role of the churches in defining ethnicity in Rwanda. While myths of Tutsi superiority and a long history of dominance over the Hutu served to justify continued Tutsi control of Rwanda in the early colonial period, the same inaccurate history became justification for revolution in the era following World War II. The new "progressive" missionaries who championed the cause of the Hutu in the 1950s promoted an ideology of exploitation that identified the Tutsi as the culprits in Rwandan history while ignoring exploitation by the German and Belgian colonial rulers. Hence, when a Hutu uprising occurred in 1959, attacks were directed against the Tutsi rather than the Belgian administrators.(21) The inaccurate idea promulgated by the missionaries that Tutsi had grossly exploited the Hutu for centuries continues to shape Hutu understandings of Rwandan history and eventually became a primary ideological justification for genocide.
The repercussions continue, recent news: Rwandan priest goes on trial for genocide - The Guardian, September 21, 2004.
Perhaps they should consider that the ideology (Christianity) should be on trial here as well, not just the many Rwandan priests who blindly followed it. After all, missionaries actively created similar ethnic divisions in many other parts of Africa. Fortunately not all of them have led to genocide.
Ironically, even after the genocide, today's Rwandans still believe that they're made up of several ethnic groups. This continues to be reinforced by Christian schools and the media.
Rwanda Massacres section of Victims of the Christian Faith at Christian Heritage recounts the deep involvement of the clergy in the genocide of the Rwandans.
In 1994 in the small African country of Rwanda in just a few months several hundred thousand civilians were butchered, apparently a conflict of the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups. For quite some time I heard only rumors about Catholic clergy actively involved in the 1994 Rwanda massacres. Odd denials of involvement were printed in Catholic church journals, before even anybody had openly accused members of the church.
Then, 10/10/96, in the newscast of S2 Aktuell, Germany - a station not at all critical to Christianity - the following was stated:"Anglican as well as Catholic priests and nuns are suspect of having actively participated in murders. Especially the conduct of a certain Catholic priest has been occupying the public mind in Rwanda's capital Kigali for months. He was minister of the church of the Holy Family and allegedly murdered Tutsis in the most brutal manner. He is reported to have accompanied marauding Hutu militia with a gun in his cowl. In fact there has been a bloody slaughter of Tutsis seeking shelter in his parish. Even two years after the massacres many Catholics refuse to set foot on the threshold of their church, because to them the participation of a certain part of the clergy in the slaughter is well established. There is almost no church in Rwanda that has not seen refugees - women, children, old - being brutally butchered facing the crucifix.More recently the BBC aired:
According to eyewitnesses clergymen gave away hiding Tutsis and turned them over to the machetes of the Hutu militia.
In connection with these events again and again two Benedictine nuns are mentioned, both of whom have fled into a Belgian monastery in the meantime to avoid prosecution. According to survivors one of them called the Hutu killers and led them to several thousand people who had sought shelter in her monastery. By force the doomed were driven out of the churchyard and were murdered in the presence of the nun right in front of the gate. The other one is also reported to have directly cooperated with the murderers of the Hutu militia. In her case again witnesses report that she watched the slaughtering of people in cold blood and without showing response. She is even accused of having procured some petrol used by the killers to set on fire and burn their victims alive..."
[S2] Newscast of S2 Aktuell, Germany, 10/10/96, 12:00.Priests get death sentence for Rwandan genocide
BBC NEWS April 19, 1998
A court in Rwanda has sentenced two Roman Catholic priests to death for their role in the genocide of 1994, in which up to a million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed. Pope John Paul said the priests must be made to account for their actions. Different sections of the Rwandan church have been widely accused of playing an active role in the genocide of 1994...
On spreading to Australia, the Salvation Army claimed the country's indigenous people as
its spiritual property.The Starvation Army: 12 Reasons to Reject the Salvation Army is described as:
The Salvation Army ran missions to Christianise aborigines and helped steal indigenous children from their parents so they could be placed in the homes of god-fearing white Christians ...
-- The Starvation Army: 12 Reasons to Reject the Salvation Army
Open these pages and discover the truth behind Australia's largest and best known charity. Rather than being the quaint old charity group of the popular imagination, this report exposes the Salvation Army as a racist, hierarchical, exploitative, right wing cult complicit in attacks on indigenous peoples and the economically disadvantaged.
CNN news: Apologize to Aborigines, says new Labor head, November 22, 2001:
...Apologies do not make it all better, contrary to what the Pope might think. And if the Australian Aboriginals had still been non-Christian for the most part, no apology would have been forthcoming until their complete conversion had been effected.
Pope apologizes too
Pope John Paul apologized to the indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific islands for injustices perpetrated by Catholic missionaries. Promulgated over the Internet, John Paul's apology also included reference to separating children from their parents.
"The church expresses deep regret and asks forgiveness where her children have been or still are party to these wrongs," John Paul wrote. He noted that in 1998, Oceania's bishops had "apologized unreservedly" for the "shameful injustices done to indigenous peoples," citing instances in which children were forcibly separated from their parents by missionaries to school the youngsters in Catholic teaching.The pontiff's message was not well-received by all Australian Aborigines.
Churches key to policyWhile members of the stolen generation had fought the federal government in the courts for compensation, they have not yet focused on churches. "That's the next step I would like to do with the rest of the stolen generation -- say you (the church) had an enormous part to play in this whole policy since you were paid by the government to look after us," he told AP.
Chairman of the Croker Island Stolen Generation Aboriginal Corporation, Maurie Ryan-Japarta said John Paul should back his apology with financial compensation. Ryan-Japarta said Christian churches played a crucial role in implementing the assimilation policies of Australian state and federal governments.
The results of this mass theft of children by Churches:
Even Churches are beginning to understand the harm they did in taking these 'savage' children away from their families. Presently much time is spent by devoted elders in tracing the tribal families from whence they were abducted.From: Aboriginies in Australia
Christianity is very well-versed in how to destroy ancient cultures (and stunt the handing-down of time-honoured traditions) in a minimum amount of time. As can be seen in the section Present-day genocide and cultural extermination, the kidnapping of indigenous children who thus end up in mission schools for conversion did not stop with the supposed lessons the Churches learnt from their heinous treatment of Australian Aboriginals. It continues in the present, though the victims are no longer indigenous Australians. The Churches have learnt nothing other than that they cannot continue this practise in a country like Australia which is in full view of the world.
The Vietnam War was declared as a crusade by the American bishops. Those same bishops also declared, in the second Vaticanum, that one should use the atomic bomb(!) against Vietnam to defend the Catholism there (Deschner 1986).Link
-- Kriminalgeschichte des Christentums - Band 1. Die Frühzeit, by Karlheinz Deschner ("The criminal history of Christianity - Volume 1. The early times")
In the case of Vietnam, the role played by the Catholic Church has been paramount. The Pope ... [consecrated] the WHOLE of Vietnam — that is the North and the South to the Virgin Mary.This was done by conveniently ignoring the fact that Vietnam was by far a Buddhist country.
-- Chapter 23 of The Vatican's Holocaust by Avro Manhattan
In the case of Vietnam a couple of centuries ago, closely knit Catholic groups cemented themselves into the surrounding non-Christian Buddhist environment. Once well established they assert themselves over their Buddhist neighbors as independent economic and political factions.
Their assertions required not only bold, religious self confidence, but also the imposition of Catholic authority upon their Buddhist co-religionists. Such imposition led to punitive legislation, which, when resisted brought repression, leading in time to the use of brute force.
In the case of President Diem and his Catholic junta [in the mid 20th century] they established themselves and their authority first with gradual legal discrimination against the Buddhist majority. The unrestricted use of terror followed when the Buddhist population refused to submit. Diem's approach was not just a freak example of contemporary Catholic aggressiveness in a largely non-Christian society. It has been repeated on the Asian continent for three hundred years.
-- Chapter 17 of Vietnam: Why did we go? by Avro Manhattan
The chapter on Vietnam in Avro Manhattan's book Vatican Holocaust is described in the book's chapter index as:
Chapter 23: Vietnam - the Croatia of AsiaSome excerpts on the treatment meted out to the majority Buddhist Vietnamese by their Christian dictators:
The religious origins of the Vietnamese conflict - Buddhists protest against a Catholic dictatorship - The Catholic Trio of a President, an Archbishop and a Security Chief - Catholic discrimination against Buddhists - Buddha's birthday forbidden - The first 16,000 American "advisers." - President Kennedy cold-shoulders Catholic Diem - Consents to Diem "assassination." The Catholic Church "loses" the war for the USA - Collapse of the USA Anti-communist front caused by Catholic intransigence.
... the Vietnamese tragedy had its origin in the religious and ideological influence exercised by the Catholic Church in the affairs of that country from its very beginning. We are not here dealing with the rights or wrongs of the Vietnamese war. But only with the paramount role which religion, with particular reference to the Catholic Church, has played in its inception. The Vietnamese tragedy was precipitated by a zealous Catholic trio formed by a Catholic President, a Catholic Head of the Secret Police, and a Catholic Archbishop. All were determined to impose the religious and political writ of the Church upon a non-Christian culture.From: Chapter 23 - Vietnam, the Croatia of Asia of the book The Vatican's Holocaust
How did it happen, particularly in view of the fact that South Vietnam was an Asian Buddhist land?...
One day in early June, 1963, a 73 year old Buddhist monk named Thich Quang Duc stopped in a busy street in Saigon, the Capital City of South Vietnam, and, after having been soaked with gasoline by a fellow monk, sat down cross-legged; thereupon, having calmly struck a match, he burned himself to death.
Prior to this, however, he had written a message to President Diem: "Enforce a policy of religious equality," the message read.
President Diem, a zealous Catholic, gave a prompt response. He clamped martial law upon the city, sealed most of the pagodas, ordered his secret police force to arrest Buddhist leaders, and mobilized his troops to truncheon any Buddhist monk or any Buddhist crowds who dared to protest at his increasing discrimination against their religion.
The self-immolation of Thich Quang Duc was the culmination of an increasingly virulent discriminatory campaign against Buddhism by a Roman Catholic Premier, President Ngo Dinh Diem, of South Vietnam. President Diem by this time had ruled the country for about nine years, helped by his two brothers, Ngo Dinh Nhu, head of the secret police, and Ngo Dinh Thuc, Archbishop of Hue. The trio had been inching for years toward veritable religious persecution of the vast majority of the country's population of 15 million, only 1,500,000 of whom were Catholics.
...[When] the whole country celebrated the 2,507th birthday of Buddha and the Buddhists unfurled their religious flag, the Archbishop, via the authorities, forbade them to do so. This, it must be remembered, in a country eighty per cent of whose population are practicing Buddhists.
The Buddhists staged a peaceful demonstration march against the edict. As a reply, the government sent troops and armoured cars and fired at the demonstrators, killing nine Buddhists.
The Hue massacre caused demonstrations all over South Vietnam. Buddhist delegations in Saigon demanded the removal of restrictions on their religion and the discriminatory laws imposed against them. The government arrested many of the demonstrators.
In Hue, meanwhile, when another demonstration of Buddhists paraded the city, troops dispersed them, using tear gas bombs. Result: sixty-seven people were taken to hospital with chemical burns.
...discriminations against the Buddhists continued unabated. Arrests of Buddhist monks multiplied. Pagodas were declared out of bounds, closed and at times even attacked
...the Catholic trio continued in their set policy: Catholicization of South Vietnam. Hasty promotions of Catholics in the government and in the army were increased, and this to such an extent that many Buddhist officers became converted to Catholicism solely with a view to swift promotion.
...with the excuse that Red elements had been found amongst the Buddhists, turned the harsh discriminatory campaign against the Buddhists into actual religious persecution.
Buddhist monks, Buddhist nuns and Buddhist leaders were arrested by the thousand. Pagodas were closed or besieged. Buddhists were tortured by the police. One day another Buddhist monk burned himself alive in public, to draw the attention of the world to the Catholic persecution. President Diem, undeterred, continued in his policy. The secret police packed the jails with more monks. The third monk committed suicide by fire, and then another. Within a brief period, seven of them had burned themselves alive in public. Vietnam was put under martial law. Troops now occupied many pagodas and drove out all monks offering resistance. More Buddhist monks and Buddhist nuns were arrested and taken away in lorries, including a large number of wounded. Many were killed.Ten thousand Buddhists took part in a hunger strike in blockaded Saigon, while a giant gong tolled from the tower of the main Xa Loi Pagoda in protest against the persecutions. At Hue, in the North, monks and nuns put up a tremendous struggle at the main pagoda of Tu Dam, which was virtually demolished, while eleven Buddhist students burned themselves inside it.
Chapter 8 of Vietnam: Why did we go? deals with how the Catholic dictator of South Vietnam, with the help of the US and the media, accomplished the mass exodus of a million North Vietnamese Christians (Catholics) to South Vietnam. Once there, they would soon impose upon, overwhelm and undermine the Buddhists, just as they had previously done to the Buddhist majority in the North. This chapter is described in the chapter index as follows:
Chapter 8: The Virgin Mary Goes South.
The Catholic Imponderable in the Escalation of the Vietnamese War.
Diem begins to create a Catholic administration - Diem refuses to hold elections as commanded by the Geneva Agreement - Diem's refusal is supported by the U.S. and the Vatican - The plan for the mass dislocation from the North - The Catholics of North Vietnam, a state within a state - The communist leader of North Vietnam appoints a Catholic bishop to his government - Catholics want preferential treatment - Scheme for mass exodus of Northern Catholics toward South Vietnam - "Why has the Virgin Mary left the North?" - Catholic mass evacuation from North Vietnam - Results of the Catholic-CIA-Diem propaganda campaign - Catholic priests as Diem's agents - A personal message to Eisenhower - The Seventh Fleet is sent to help Diem - Flight for Freedom with the American Navy - The pope's representatives meet the first refugees - Humbug fanfare from Washington - The greatest phony refugee campaign promoted by the CIA and the Vatican.
Chapter 10 of Vietnam: Why did we go? is described in the chapter index as as:
Chapter 10: The Promotion of Catholic Totalitarianism.
"Individuals Considered Dangerous May Be Confined to a Concentration Camp."
Discrimination against non-Catholic religions - Bribes, threats, agents and bitterness - Battles, riots and arrest of members of "hostile" religions - Further consolidation of the Catholic presence - Diem is given "dictatorial" power - Executive orders for concentration camps - American advisors support the new measures - Buddhists arrested without warrants - Interrogation, deportation, and torture of Buddhists - "Open" detention camps - Massacre and mass elimination of Buddhists - Buddhists become Catholic to save their lives.
- Vietnam: Why did we go? by Avro Manhattan - online, at an Evangelical site that Avro Manhattan, the deceased author, had no affiliations with.
- Vietnam, the Croatia of Asia Chapter 23 of The Vatican Holocaust by Avro Manhattan - online, also at the same Evangelical site.
However, the site that has made these two works of his available on-line is a heavily Evangelical site. Even though they are extremely critical of Catholicism and somewhat mildly critical of Orthodox Christianity too, they have failed to self-reflect on the historic crimes perpetrated by Protestantism. These were the same as that of their forbears who they criticise: genocide, the Protestant inquisition, slavery, terrorism, extermination of cultures and, of course, complicity in Nazism.
The same Evangelical site has also ignored the present-day genocide perpetrated by their own fundamentalist Christian variety, see the section Present-day genocide and cultural extermination.